On the left bank of the Dniester is the county town of the Kherson province of Tiraspol. Before the annexation of the Ochakiv region to Russia, which took place in 1791, the Moldavian fishing village of Suklea was located on the site of present-day Tiraspol. At the conclusion of the Yassky peace treaty, the first Russian settlers in the place of Sukleya were the Cossacks of the Yekaterinoslav cavalry, who came from the Old Believer settlements of the Kherson province, who, upon returning from a campaign to their homeland, asked Suvorov for permission to settle in this free area. In 1792, one of the fortresses of the Dniester line was built, which was called the Middle or Main Fortress near the river. Bothny. in 1795, a city arose near the fortress, which initially became the county town of the Voznesensky governorship, from 1802 to the Nikolaev province, and from 1806 to the Kherson province.
The city got its name due to a misunderstanding - in memory of the ancient Greek city of Tiras, which, however, was far from this area. The fortress was abolished in 1835.
According to the 1897 census, there are 31,600 inhabitants in Tiraspol. 3/5 of the population are Orthodox, 1/4 are Jews. In Tiraspol there are more than 300 trade enterprises with an annual turnover of more than 2.4 million rubles, there were industrial enterprises (1900) -7 with a turnover of 450,000 rubles. Tiraspol conducts a significant holiday grain trade, concentrated almost exclusively in the hands of the Jews. The city has several churches, a Jewish synagogue, male and female gymnasiums and more than a dozen other educational institutions, two libraries, several bookstores and a printing house. For trade, the city's public bank and three fairs play an important role.
County town of Kherson province, on the left bank of the Dniester. Inhabitants 6436 souls vol. gender. houses 740 churches 2: Orthodox and Edinoverchi, schismatic chapel, synagogues 2, county offices, county school, 18 stones. and 27 wooden. shops, 12 cellars, 5 inns, 72 windmills, washing of sheep's wool, 8 plants: 2 fat burning, 5 candle, 1 brewery.
A provincial fortress at the mouth of the river. Botny, in which there are: a church, a commandant's house, a hospital, barracks, arsenals, powder magazines and outside its walls sheds of three artillery parks Nos. 13, 14 and 15. 3 versts in the village of Suklei, a sheep wool washer owned by the Swiss consul Demol. 8 versts in the Bulgarian colony, parkans at the crossing over the Dniester River, Mulberry grove with a mulberry plant.
According to the 11th volume of the military statistical review of the Russian Empire #
Tiraspol, a county town, was built on the left bank of the Dniester at 45 gr. 50 min. north latitude and 47 degrees. 18 min. east longitude, the distance from St. Petersburg is 1690 versts, from Moscow 1393 versts, from the provincial city of Kherson 270 versts.
The city is divided by a wide ravine, called an estuary, into 2 parts: eastern and western, the first more than the second; the eastern part is built on a low-lying valley, which is covered with water during spring floods. The Dniester River washes the city from the south, and during floods covers the southwestern part with water. There are two ferries to cross the Dniester. of which each raises up to 50 people. The pier on the left bank is steep, on the right canopy and sandy. The width of the river at the crossing is 40 sazhens in summer, 80 sazhens in winter, 4 sazhens in spring, and 2 sazhens in summer. There are many wells in the city, but the water in them is mountain-salty with a bad smell, and therefore residents can only use good water from the Dniester in winter.
City land is considered to be 14,612 acres, of which: under estates and pastures 3671 dessiatines, under arable and hay fields 10576 dessiatines, inconvenient 365 dessiatines. The urban land spreads out as a vast low-lying plain, cut occasionally by beams with slight steepness. The soil in elevated places is partly sandy-clay and partly sandy-calcareous, and in low places it is covered with a thick layer of chernozem.
The inhabitants are considered to be 3274 males and 3162 females, in total 6436 of both sexes. They mainly consist of Russian Old Believers. Little Russians, Moldovans, Jews and Gypsies make up the smallest part of the population. In public life, the Old Believers are distinguished by distrust and aloofness.
The city was built correctly and forms a rectangle, there are stone churches in it: Orthodox -1, Edinoverie -1, chapel -1; county school, almshouse, houses are considered 677, of which 96 were built of rubble stone and 580 reeds smeared with clay; factories: fat-baking-4, candle-4 and wool-washing -1, shops 16, wine cellars-8, inns -3.
The trade of the city is the most insignificant in red and groceries. The main occupations of the inhabitants are sheep breeding, gardening and agriculture. There are up to 20,000 sheep of various breeds; merchants rent land for their grazing for the most part in the nearest districts of the Podolsk province. The fruit orchards in the low-lying part of the city are grown on a large scale and bring in considerable income. One orchard of the merchant Martynensky in a good year brings more than 4,000 rubles in silver income.
At the Dniester, in the city itself, a washing of sheep's wool is arranged, where sheep are brought from different places; workers, mostly women, are used daily during the summer from 200 to 250, they receive a daily wage of 25 to 30 silver kopecks per day. Net income brings washing up to 12,000 silver in the summer.
At the conclusion of the Yassky Peace, among other fortresses along the Dniester, it was built at the confluence of the river. Boshny to the Dniester, the middle or Tiraspol fortress opposite the former Turkish fortress of Bender, at that time on the site of present-day Tiraspol there was a Moldavian farm of 6 small houses, whose inhabitants were engaged in fishing; in 1793, the city of Tiraspol was built near the fortress. Tiraspol, being on a significant river and on the main route from Bessarabia, is of considerable importance. Moreover, the Dniester flows quickly, its left bank, on which the city is built, surrounding the incoming part of the river, provides an opportunity to defend the crossing in this place.
County town on the left bank of the Dniester, at the confluence of the river Botna, at 46 gr. 50 min. sowing latitude and 0 degrees 43 min. west longitude from Pulkovo. To the provincial city 361.5 versts, to St. Petersburg 1645 versts, to Moscow 1373 versts. Orthodox parish 1, and churches - 2, parish of the same faith and the church, schismatic prayer houses 2, Jewish synagogues 2, Jewish prayer houses 4, Jewish prayer schools 2. Police units - 2. Judicial Investigation Section-2. Yards - 1568. Residents - 19176 (9670 men, 9506 women).
City government. City land 14,988 acres: manor land - 624 dessiatines, arable land - 9418 dessiatines, haymaking - 350 dessiatines, pastures - 3003 dessiatines, vegetable gardens - 1122 dessiatines, inconvenient - 471 dess. The city budget in 1894: income 129.6 thousand rubles, expenses 122.6 thousand rubles. Fire brigade - 13 workers, 12 horses, 4 cars, 4.8 thousand rubles were released by the city in 1894. Meshchanskaya administration. orphan court.
Private 4-class men's gymnasium (85 students), women's 4-class gymnasium (82 students), county school (62 schools), parochial 2-class school (105 students). City schools subordinate to the school council - 5 (312 m., 76 days). Church-parochial school (13 min.). Private schools, without headers 3 (121 m.). Printing house. Bookstores -2. Libraries - 4 (at clubs). Zemstvo hospital with 22 beds. County: doctor, midwife and paramedic. City doctor. City health officer. Zemsky veterinarian and paramedic. Freelancers: doctors - 4, paramedics -2, a midwife and a dentist. Pharmacy free - 2 and a branch office. Pharmacy warehouse.
City plumbing. Clubs - 4 (city and 3 military). Square. Trade baths -3. City slaughterhouse. Jail. Postal and telegraph office and with it a savings bank. Station of the South-Western Railways. State and zemstvo postal stations. Ferry across the Dniester river. Bridges - 3. Hotel. Inns - 7.
City public bank. In 1894, deposits were accepted for 69.2 thousand rubles, loans were issued for 224.1 thousand rubles. Agencies of insurance companies -4. Agencies of transport offices -2. Notary offices - 2.
Wax factories - 2 (annual production of 4.4 thousand rubles), an institution of artificial mineral waters (2.6 thousand rubles), a tobacco factory (15.4 thousand rubles), cotton establishments - 2 (2.4 thousand rubles), gingerbread and candy (0.5 thousand rubles), oil mill (0.6 thousand rubles), steam mills - 7 (175.3 thousand rubles), windmills - 38 (11, 4 thousand rubles), steam sawmills - 2 (46 thousand rubles), brick factories -3 (12.6 thousand rubles), pottery - 2 (0.9 thousand rubles), a workshop of agricultural implements ( 14 thousand rubles), locksmith workshops - 6 (3.0 thousand rubles), forges -19 (10.2 thousand rubles), carpentry workshops -2 (1.5 thousand rubles), carriage ( 3.0 thousand rubles), wheeled - 3 (0.7 thousand rubles), cooperage - 6 (3.3 thousand rubles). Timber warehouses -7, sugar warehouses -4, kerosene warehouse, egg warehouse, grain barns -30.
144 shops: 12 manufactories, 65 groceries, 9 Rens cellars, 43 taverns, 6 beer shops, 4 buffets (at clubs), 18 tea shops.
Market squares - 2. Market days - Sunday, Wednesday and Friday. Fairs - 3.
Tiraspol suburban farms - Near farm, Grebeniki, Eremyshkins, Serfdom settlement, Brick settlement, Kolkotovaya beam.